Vertebra, Vertebrae, Vertebrate, Vertebrata

What is a vertebra, vertebrae, vertebrate, and Vertebrata?

A vertebra is bone that is part of an animal or human spine. The spine is also called a spinal column or backbone.

Vertebrae are several bones (plural) that form the spine.

A vertebrate is an animal with a spine. The plural is vertebrates.

The subphylum Vertebrata includes all animals in the world that have a spinal column.

Vertebrates include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.

Invertebrata includes all the animals in the world that do not have a spinal column (‘in’ means without).

Invertebrates include insects, arachnids (spiders), molluscs (snails), crustaceans (crabs), worms, coral, starfish, sponges, and jellyfish.

Are there advantages in having a long neck?

Are there advantages in having a long neck in the animal kingdom?

Having long necks helps giraffes, camels, and llamas reach leaves and branches in tall trees that smaller herbivorous mammals cannot reach.

Almost all mammals have seven cervical vertebrae (bones) in their necks, whether they have long necks or short necks. Humans have seven neck bones too.

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