The Atlantic Mudskipper (Periophthalmus barbarus) is a marine (saltwater) fish in the Oxudercidae family. It is similar to the Goby. It is also found in freshwater and brackish water. It is amphibious – it can live in the water and on land – but it is not an amphibian (like a frog or toad) because it does not have lungs.
The Atlantic Mudskipper has a long brown or greenish body. During the mating season it develops coloured spots, such as red, green or blue. It has close-set, bulging eyes. It has forward fins that are similar to legs that enable it to walk, or skip, along the surface of the mud. It can even climb trees.
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The Great Seahorse (Hippocampus kelloggi) is a marine (saltwater) fish in the Syngnathidae family. It is a teleostfish. It is also known as the Kellogg’s Seahorse.
The Great Seahorse has a smooth, pale body. Its tail has tail rings. Its snout (nose) is thin with a stub end. Each eye moves separately, enabling it to see its predators from all directions. The male has a smooth, soft pouch-like area at the base of its abdomen, with a small fin. The female has a pointed stomach and a larger fin at the base of her abdomen.
It has a forward tilt, and a long, coiled tail. It swims using its dorsal fin, keeping its vertical position and leaning forward.
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The Yellow Mongoose (Cynictis penicillata) is a mammal in the Herpestidae family. It is also known as the Red Meerkat.
It is mainly diurnal, active during the day. Diurnal animals usually have round pupils, like the eyes of humans.
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Most animals can look at other animals and humans in the eyes. Pet animals do. However, there is a difference, in general, in the way cats and dogs make eye contact with humans.
A cat makes quick, fleeting eye contact with a human. A cat looks at a human in the eyes and then looks away quickly, and then may look back again. This is known as a ‘less intrusive glance’ or a fleeting glance.
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The Marmalade Fly (Episyrphus balteatus) is a small insect in the Syrphidae family of hoverflies. It is also known as the Marmalade Hoverfly.
The Marmalade Fly is patterned with orange and black bands on the top of its abdomen. The female has dark-orange, light-orange, and black bands. It looks like a wasp, but it is smaller and it does not have a tiny waist. The male has holoptic eyes, which means that the left and right compound eyes touch at the top of its head. The adult has wings.
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The Oblique-Lined Tiger Beetle (Cicindela tranquebarica) is a large insect in the Carabidae family of ground beetles.
The Oblique-Liined Tiger Beetle has a small rounded head, a small thorax (chest), and a long brown-grey abdomen (body). It has yellowish lines on its back, on its wing covers, called elytra. One wing cover is called an elytron. It has wings and can fly. Its antennae are long, black, and ridged. It has a groove on its foreleg with a comb of hairs used for cleaning its antennae. It has bulging eyes. It has six long, thin, hairy legs.
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The Slender Seahorse (Hippocampus reidi) is a marine (saltwater) fish in the Syngnathidae family. It is a teleostfish. It is also known as the Longsnout Seahorse.
The Slender Seahorse is brightly-coloured. The male is usually orange and the female is usually yellow. Both the male and the female have small brown or white spots unevenly over their body. During courtship, the spots may change colour to pink. Its snout (nose) is thin with a stub end. Each eye moves separately, enabling it to see its predators from all directions.
It has a forward tilt, and a long, coiled tail. The male has a smooth, soft pouch-like area at the base of its abdomen, with a small fin. The female has a pointed stomach and a larger fin at the base of her abdomen.
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The Pallas’s Cat (Otocolobus manul) is a wild cat, native to Central Asia, in countries such as Afghanistan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, India, Kazakhstan, and Pakistan.
The pupils in its eyes are round, not vertically-lined pupils like the eyes of domestic cats.
Domestic cats are nocturnal (active at night) and have vertical pupils, called slits.
The Pallas’s Cat is diurnal (active during the day) and have round, circular pupils.
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The Short-Snouted Seahorse (Hippocampus hippocampus) is a marine (saltwater) animal in the Syngnathidae family. It is a teleostfish.
The Short-Snouted Seahorse can be black, purple, orange, or brown. Its snout (nose) is short and up-turned. It has a forward tilt, and a long, coiled tail. The male has a smooth, soft pouch-like area at the base of its abdomen, with a small fin. The female has a pointed stomach and a larger fin at the base of her abdomen. Each eye moves separately, enabling it to see its predators from all directions.
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What is the difference between the Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and the Greater Rhea (Rhea Americana)?
The Emu and the Greater Rhea are large fightless birds. The Emu and the Greater Rhea are both ratites, because they cannot fly (the Ostrich, Kiwi, and Cassowary are also ratites).
The Emu and the Greater Rhea have a large, soft, grey-brown feathered body, a long featherless neck, and long featherless legs with three toes.
The Emu has orange-brown eyes, whereas the Greater Rhea has blue to brown eyes.
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What is the difference between the Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) and the Smew (Mergellus albellus)?
The Common Goldeneye and the Smew are both medium-sized birds in the family of diving ducks.
The Common Goldeneye has bright golden eyes, whereas the Smew has brown eyes.
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The Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) is a medium-sized bird in the duck family. It is a diving duck. It is a sea duck, living in marine (saltwater) locations, but it breeds in freshwater lakes. It is related to the Smew.
The Common Goldeneye has prominent golden eyes. The male has a dark head with greenish iridescent feathers and a round white patch below its eyes. It has a dark back, a white neck, white sides, and a white chest. The female has a brown head and a mostly grey body. Both males and females have a yellowish beak, yellow legs, and orange-yellow webbed feet. Its beak is grey, although the female has a yellow tipped beak.
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The African Civet (Civettictis civetta) is a large weasel-looking or raccoon-looking mammal. It is a viverrid.
The African Civet is a stocky animal with a long body. It has short legs, a short broad neck, a pointed muzzle (nose), a long bushy tail (with black and a few white bands), and small round eyes. It has black bands surrounding its eyes (like a raccoon). It has rough black and white striped and blotched fur, called pelage. It has both long hair and short under-fur, called guard hairs. It has long, white whiskers.
It has a crest of fur along its back, which is raised when it is threatened. It has five toes on each foot. Its claws are long, curved, and semi-retractible. Its paws are completely black.
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What is the difference between the Eurasian Eagle-Owl (Bubo bubo) and the Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus)?
The Eurasian Eagle-Owl has orange eyes, whereas the Great Horned Owl has yellow eyes.
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The Springtail (Microfalcula delamarei) is a micro-small, wingless hexapod. A hexapod has three pairs of legs (6 legs), but it is not an insect.
It is entognathous, which means that is has internal mouthparts in a gnathal (jaw) pouch. It is in the Collembola class and the Entomobryoidea super-family – like a terrestrial crustacean, because scientists think that it evolved from marine (saltwater) shrimp, crabs, and lobsters. Scientists first thought that it was an insect, but they have now changed the category to an entognathous animal.
The Springtail has three parts: the head capsule, a thorax (with three segments and 6 legs), and an abdomen (with five segments). Therefore, it looks like an insect. It has small antennae, two eyes, and mouthparts. The mouthparts have a pair of jaws. The two eyes are called composed eyes, because they are composed of 8 single eyes. It does not have a throat, so it breathes through a porous cuticle.
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A Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) has excellent vision. It can detect movement from a long distance away.
A Sika Deer does not have a round pupil, like the pupil of a human eye. It does not have a slitted pupil, like the pupil of a domestic cat.
A Sika Deer has an elongated pupil. It looks like a raisin, or a flattened grape.
A full arc of vision is 360 degrees. A human has an arc of vision of 120 degrees (a human cannot see objects behind it). A Sika Deer has an arc of vision of 310 degrees, which means that it can see almost all around it.
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What are the similarities or differences between the eyes of a Cat (Felis catus), Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Lion (Panthera leo), and Tiger (Panthera tigris)?
The Domestic Cat is nocturnal, active at night. The Cheeth and the Lion are diurnal, active during the day. The Leopard and the Tiger are crepuscular, active at dawn and dusk.
The eyes of a nocturnal animal have vertical pupils that look like a black line, called slitted eyes. The eyes of a diurnal or crepuscular animal have round pupils.
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The Chameleon has very distinctive eyes.
The upper and lower eyelids are joined, with only a pinhole large enough for the pupil to see through.
Each eye can pivot and focus independently, allowing the chameleon to observe two different objects simultaneously.
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The Chameleon (family Chamaeleonidae) is a lizard – and a reptile.
The Chameleon can be a variety of colours, and many can change colour to match its environment – this is called camouflage. It is usually green, brown, olive-green, or grey-brown. It is elongated, usually with a raised or slightly-domed back, and a tail that can curl around plants. It often has a crest of spines along its back, and a fleshy lump at the back of its head. It has zygodactylous (fused) feet for climbing trees. It has a long tongue, and independently mobile eyes with stereoscopic vision.
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What is the difference between the African Leopard (Panthera pardus), the Amur Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), the Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) and the Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia)?
The African Leopard, Amur Leopard, Persian Leopard, and Snow Leopard are all solitary, elusive, large felines or wild cats. All of the leopards have pale-green or grey eyes.
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