Dwarf Lanternshark

The Dwarf Lanternshark (Etmopterus perryi) is a marine (saltwater) fish in the Etmopteridae family of dogfish sharks. It is an elasmobranch cartilaginous fish — a fish that does not have a bony skeleton.

The Dwarf Lanternshark is dark-brown with a long, flattened head and black markings along its back. It has large eyes. It has several rows of teeth. It has small gill slits, where it takes in water and extracts oxygen to breathe. 

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Sand Tiger Shark

The Sand Tiger Shark (Carcharias taurus) is a marine (saltwater) fish in the Odontaspididae family of sharks. It is an elasmobranch cartilaginous fish — a fish that does not have a bony skeleton. It is also known as the Grey Nurse Shark, Spotted Ragged-Tooth Shark, and Blue-Nurse Sand Tiger.

The Sand Tiger Shark has a sharp, pointy head, and a large, bulky body. It is grey with reddish-brown spots on its back. Its eyes are small and lack eyelids. It swims with its mouth always open so that it can breathe oxygen from the water. Its teeth are always showing. Its teeth are smooth, ragged, and sharp-pointed. 

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Leucistic Zebra Shark

The Zebra Shark (Stegostoma fasciatum) is a marine (saltwater) fish in the Stegostomatidae family of carpet sharks. It is an elasmobranch cartilaginous fish — a fish that does not have a bony skeleton.

A leucistic Zebra Shark has reduced colouring, but not complete albinism. An albino lacks colour (it looks white) and has pink eyes. A leucistic animal is light or white, but does not have pink eyes. It has brown, blue, or green eyes.

The Zebra Shark has a slim, cylindrical body with a slightly flattened head, and a short, blunt snout (nose). A regular Zebra Shark is pale with a pattern of dark spots. It has five ridges along its body. It eyes are small and its nose has short barbels (like whiskers) from each nostril. Its mouth is almost straight with rows of sharp teeth. It has gill slits on the sides of its body to breathe underwater. 

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Whitespotted Bamboo Shark

The Whitespotted Bamboo Shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) is a marine (saltwater) fish in the Hemiscyllidae family of carpet sharks. It is an elasmobranch cartilaginous fish — a fish that does not have a bony skeleton.

The Whitespotted Bamboo Shark has a pale body with dark bands and purple and pink spots. It has a distinct dorsal (back) fin. It rests on the bottom of the sea on its bent pectoral fins. It has small teeth. 

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Why do woodpeckers peck?

Why do woodpeckers peck?

The Woodpecker is a tree-climbing bird with a strong beak. 

It lives in forests. It pecks at the bark of a tree to find its food, such as insects and insect larvae. It has a long tongue to catch insects. It also pecks on the tree to communicate with other Woodpeckers. 

Wood-pecking is hard work. To ensure that it has enough energy, the Woodpecker needs to eat regularly. Scientists think that it can eat 1,000-2,000 insects a day.

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Zebra Shark

The Zebra Shark (Stegostoma fasciatum) is a marine (saltwater) fish in the Stegostomatidae family of carpet sharks. It is an elasmobranch cartilaginous fish — a fish that does not have a bony skeleton.

The Zebra Shark has a slim, cylindrical body with a slightly flattened head, and a short, blunt snout (nose). It is pale with a pattern of dark spots that is different for each shark. It has five ridges along its body. It eyes are small. Its mouth is almost straight with rows of sharp teeth. It has gill slits on the sides of its body to breathe underwater. 

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Sandbar Shark

The Sandbar Shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) is a marine (saltwater) fish in the Carcharhinidae family of requiem sharks. It is an elasmobranch cartilaginous fish — a fish that does not have a bony skeleton. It is also known as the Thickskin Shark or the Brown Shark. It is related to the Bull Shark.

The Sandbar Shark has a bluish-grey or brownish-grey streamlined body, with a very high, triangular dorsal (back) fin and long pectoral fins. It has a white underbelly. It has a broad, rounded snout and large, round eyes. The upper and lower jaws each have 13 or 14 triangular-shaped teeth.

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RESEARCH: Reef Sharks have friendship groups

Marine research scientists have found out that Grey Reef Sharks hang out with the same friends in the same spot for years.

Researchers at the Florida International University in America have studied Grey Reef Sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) for four years in the remote Palmyra Atoll in the Pacific Ocean.

To study the Grey Reef Sharks, the researchers tagged about 40 individual sharks with acoustic transmitters that emit a unique high-frequency sound. A network of 65 receivers recorded the identiy of any tagged shark that came within 300 metres of any of the receivers. The batteries on the transmitters last for four years.

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Blacktip Reef Shark

The Blacktip Reef Shark (Carcharhinus melanopterus) is a marine (saltwater) requiem shark in the Carcharhinidae family. It is an elasmobranch cartilaginous fish—a fish that does not have a bony skeleton. 

The Blacktip Reef Shark is slim and grey, with black tips on its dorsal (back) and caudal (tail) fins. It has a wide, rounded snout (nose) and large, oval-shaped eyes. It has 11-13 rows of sharp triangular-shaped teeth on the upper jaw and 10-12 rows on the lower jaw.

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Scalloped Hammerhead Shark

The Scalloped Hammerhead Shark (Sphyrna lewini) is an elasmobranch fish with a cartilaginous skeleton in the Sphyrnidae family of hammerhead sharks. It is also known as the Bronze Hammerhead, the Kidney-Headed Hammerhead, or the Southern Hammerhead. 

The Scalloped Hammerhead Shark has a hammer-shaped head, called a cephalofoil. It is light-grey with a greenish tint and a white belly. Its mouth is small. Its nostrils and eyes are located on the sides of the hammer part of its head, and not in front. This allows a full circle of vision. It can see above it, below it, and all around it. It has gill slits on the side of its body.

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Small-Spotted Catshark

The Small-Spotted Catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) is a cartilaginous marine (saltwater) fish in the Scyliorhinidae family of dogfish. It is also known as the Sandy Dogfish, Lesser-Spotted Dogfish, or Round-Hound. 

The Small-Spotted Catshark has an elongated, slender body with a blunt head. Its skin is rough (like sandpaper). It is greyish-brown with dark-brown spots. Its underbelly is greyish-white. 

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Tawny Nurse Shark

The Tawny Nurse Shark (Nebrius ferrugineus) is a marine (saltwater) reef shark – a cartilaginous fish – in the Ginglymostomatidae family. It is not a bony fish. Cartilage is elastic tissue, like the human ear and the human nose.

The Tawny Nurse Shark has a long cylindrical grey-brown body with a broad, flattened head. It has pointed-tipped dorsal fins (back fins) and narrow pectoral fins. Its eyes are small and far apart, on each side of its head (not in the front of its face). It has a pair of long, thin barbels (protuberances) near its nostrils. It has a small mouth with overlapping fan-shaped teeth that have a small sharp point. It has four or five gills on each side of its body so that it can breathe (like fish).

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Southern Stingray

The Southern Stingray (Dasyatis americana) is a marine cartilaginous fish (fish without bones, like a shark). Instead of a bony skeleton, it has cartilage, which is the same substance as the human nose and human ears.

The Southern Stingray has a thin, flat body, like a diamond-shaped disc (or kite-shaped), that can be brown, olive-green-brown, or grey. It has a white underbelly, where its small mouth is located. It has a long, tapering tail with two dorsal fins and venomous serrated (saw-like) barbs. Its bulging eyes are on the top of its head, close together. It has five pairs of small gills which enable it to breath underwater.

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Undulate Ray

The Undulate Ray (Raja undulata) is a skate, not a ray. It is a cartilaginous fish (fish without bones, like a shark). Instead of a bony skeleton, it has cartilage, which is the same substance as the human nose and human ears.

The Undulate Ray has a flat disc-shape body, with a triangle-shaped front part (head) and nearly-round body. It is not perfectly round because it has elongated sides. It has a long tapering tail with two small dorsal fins at the end with two thorns between them. They are barbless.

It has bulging eyes that are close together and face the front. Its mouth is on its underside and is small. It has five pairs of small gills which enable it to breath underwater. It is light-brown or grey with dark bands on its tail and dark spots on its body. Its has a creamy-white underbelly.

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