Southern Stingray

The Southern Stingray (Hypanus americanus) is a marine (saltwater) whiptail stingray.

The Southern Stingray has a flat, diamond-shaped body with sharp, angular corners. It is muddy-brown, olive, or grey with a white underbelly. It has a barb at the end of its long, thin tail. The barb is serrated (saw-like) and is covered with poisonous mucous. Its wing-like fins propel it through the water. Its eyes are on top of its head. 

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Pacific Sea Nettle

The Pacific Sea Nettle (Chrysaora fuscescens) is a marine (saltwater) planktonic scyphozoan in the phylum Cnidaria of jellyfish. It is also called the West Coast Sea Nettle.

The Pacific Sea Nettle has a golden-brown bell-shaped dome with a reddish tint. From the bell, there are 24 long reddish tentacles and long white, spiral-shaped, oral arms. It has light sensing organs called ocelli. 

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Common Stingray

The Common Stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca) is a marine (saltwater) cartilaginous fish (without bones, like a shark). Instead of a bony skeleton, it has cartilage, which is the same substance as the human nose and human ears.

The Common Stingray is thin, flat, and diamond-shaped, but slightly wider than long (like a kite). It is pale-grey, brown or olive-green, with smooth skin. Its small mouth is located on its underside and its bulging eyes are close together on the top of its head. It has small blunt teeth. It has a long, tapering, whip-like tail with two dorsal fins and a venomous barb. It has five pairs of small gills, which enable it to breath underwater.

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Red-Line Torpedo Barb

The Red-Line Torpedo Barb (Sahyadria denisonii) is an endangered cyprinid freshwater fish. It is also known as the Denison Barb.

The Red-Line Torpedo Barb has a silver torpedo-shaped body with a horizontal red line from its nose, through its eye, and to the middle of its body. Below the red line is a horizontal black line from its nose to its tail. There is also a red line on its dorsal fin (back fin) and two black spots on its tail.

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What is the difference between a skate and a ray?

What is the difference between a skate (Raja undulata) and a ray (Dasyatis)?

Both the skate (an undulate ray) and the ray are marine (saltwater) cartilaginous fish related to the shark. Not all rays are stingrays.

Both the skate and the ray have flat, boneless bodies. Instead of bone, they have cartilage (the human nose and ears are made of cartilage).

Both the skate and the ray glide through the water.

The skate has an almost-rounded body, whereas the ray is usually diamond-shaped or kite-shaped.

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Undulate Ray

The Undulate Ray (Raja undulata) is a skate, not a ray. It is a cartilaginous fish (fish without bones, like a shark). Instead of a bony skeleton, it has cartilage, which is the same substance as the human nose and human ears.

The Undulate Ray has a flat disc-shape body, with a triangle-shaped front part (head) and nearly-round body. It is not perfectly round because it has elongated sides. It has a long tapering tail with two small dorsal fins at the end with two thorns between them. They are barbless.

It has bulging eyes that are close together and face the front. Its mouth is on its underside and is small. It has five pairs of small gills which enable it to breath underwater. It is light-brown or grey with dark bands on its tail and dark spots on its body. Its has a creamy-white underbelly.

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Silver Butter Catfish

The Silver Butter Catfish (Schilbe intermedius) is a freshwater African catfish. It is a ray-finned fish.

The Silver Butter Catfish is silver with an olive-brown head. It has two thin, horizontal, dark-grey bands: one from the tail to the gills and a shorter one from the pectoral fins to the tail fin. It has transparent fins.

It has a shovel-mouth. It has nasal (nose) barbs, that extend upwards, and four pairs of short barbels around its lip and mouth, which look like the whiskers of a cat. Its eyes are slightly protruded.

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