The Goldfish (Carassius auratus) is a common and popular freshwater, and is most often seen in ornamental ponds and aquarium tanks. Goldfish are called cyprinids. Carp and minnow are also cyprinids.

Goldfish vary greatly in size, shape, and colour, but are usually white, yellow, orange, red, brown, and black.

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Hunchback Tilapia

The Hunchback Tilapia (Cyphotilapia frontosa), is commonly called the Frontosa. It is a cichlid fish found in Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. Cyphotilapia means hunchback fish, and frontosa means big forehead.

The Hunchback Tilapia has 5-7 vertical black bars on a white-blue body. Its fins also look white-blue. One of the black bars runs through its eyes. It is a thick-lipped fish. The most striking feature is the hump on its forehead. It is called a nuchal hump. Nuchal means that the hump is on the nape (back of the neck).

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Common Carp

The Common Carp or European Carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish in lakes and rivers, native to Europe and Asia. It has been introduced to many other countries and is regarded as an invasive species.

The Common Carp has bronze or yellowish scales with serrated dorsal and anal fin spines.

Common Carp can grow to very large sizes with adequate space and nutrients. However, the average size of the Common Carp is around 40–80 centimetres (16-32 inches) long.

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Yellow Tang

The Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) is a bright yellow peaceful saltwater fish in the Acanthuridae family, native to the Hawaiian Islands. Flavescens means yellow. They are related to the surgeon fish.

They are round and flat, with dark eyes and a protruding nose. At night, the yellow colour fades slightly, and a prominent brownish patch develops in the middle with a horizontal white band. During daylight, the yellow colour returns.

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Dalmatian Linckia Starfish

The Dalmatian Linckia (Linckia multifora) is a starfish, a marine invertebrate, because it has no backbone. It is also called the Spotted Linckia or Multicolour Sea Star.

The starfish is an echinoderm (meaning prickly skin) in the Asteroidea class (meaning star-shaped).

It has five elongated tube limbs (feet or arms) pink or reddish mottled with white and yellow colours that taper slightly towards the tips.

The surface has a rough texture and is covered in granulations.

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Marbled African Lungfish

The Marbled African Lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus) is one of four species of lungfish found in Africa. It is found in the Nile River and Lake Victoria, and other lakes, swamplands and floodplains.

The Marbled African Lungfish is a dark-coloured or grey, long, eel-like fish with spaghetti-like pectoral and pelvic fins. It has a mottled or spotted pattern, and small blue eyes.

It has soft scales and a paddle-like tail. They can swim like eels or crawl along the bottom of the river in shallow freshwater with their little leg-like structures.

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External Covering: from skin and scales to fur and feathers

External covering is the outside appearance of an animal. Animals can have fur, feathers, hair, short hair, long hair, smooth hair, bristles, skin, thick skin, moist skin, dry skin, scales, waterproof scales, small scales, overlapping scales, spikes, hard shells, soft shells, smooth shells, rough shells, wool, or no covering at all.

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Iridescent scales, feathers and shells

Iridescence means shiny with many colours. Many animals have iridescent colours.

Iridescence is structural colour from refracted light (crystals), diffraction gratings (feathers or butterfly wings), thin film (oily surfaces), multiple layer interference (nacre in shells), or 3-D arrays of spheres (opals).

The word iridescence comes from iris, the Greek word for rainbow. An iridescent object has many tones of colour. Iridescence creates colour by splitting and reflecting light from different structures – which is why it is often called structural colour.

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