Paternal care: which male animals make the best fathers?

Which male animals make the best fathers? 

In the animal kingdom, there are many examples of mothers taking sole care of their young, and many examples of both parents raising their young together, but there are also father animals who solely look after their young. 

When mothers look after babies, it is called maternal care. When fathers look after babies, it is called paternal care. 

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What is the difference between the Four Stripe Damselfish and the Tuxedo Damselfish?

What is the difference between the Four Stripe Damselfish (Dascyllus melanurus) and the Tuxedo Damselfish (Chrysiptera tricincta)?

The Four Stripe Damselfish and the Tuxedo Damselfish both belong to the Pomacentridae family of damselfish.

The Four Stripe Damselfish and the Tuxedo Damselfish are both tropical marine (saltwater) reef fish. 

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Tuxedo Damselfish

The Tuxedo Damselfish (Chrysiptera tricincta) is a marine (saltwater) fish in the Pomacentridae family of damelfish. It is also known as the Threeband Damselfish or the Threeband Demoiselle. 

The Tuxedo Damselfish is white with three wide black vertical bands on its body. It has an oval-shaped, laterally-compressed body. It has a set of small teeth in three rows.

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Checkerboard Wrasse

The Checkerboard Wrasse (Halichoeres hortulanus) is a marine (saltwater) fish in the wrasse family. It is also known as the Marble Wrasse.

The Checkerboard Wrasse has a thin and elongated body. It is white to green in colour with blue to black on the ede of its scales, which looks like a checkerboard. Its head is greenish with pink lines and dots behind its eyes to the base of its dorsal (back) fin. It has a bright yellow spot near its dorsal fin. Both its sex and appearance change during its life. 

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Electric Eel

The Electric Eel (Electrophorus electricus) is a freshwater fish. It is not an eel. It is a Gymnotiforme in the knifefish family. It is relatd to the Catfish. 

The Electric Eel is an ostarophysan fish because its bladder has two chambers which keeps it buoyant (afloat). It is an air-breather, and must come to the surface to breathe. 

The Electric Eeel has a long, cylindrical, snake-like dark-grey to brownish body. Its underbelly is yellow or orange. It has a fin that runs along its underbelly. It does not have scales like fish. Its mouth is square-shaped. 

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Yoyo Loach

The Yoyo Loach (Botia almorhae) is a tropical freshwater fish in the Botiidae (botid) family of loaches. It is also known as the Almora Loach.

The Yoyo Loach has an elongated body with dark and light patterns, which looks like the letter “y” or the word yoyo. Its tail has thin horizontal greyish stripes. It has short whiskers, called barbels, on its snout (nose). It has a downward-facing mouth.

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Lookdown Fish

The Lookdown Fish (Selene vomeror Argyriosus vomer) is a marine (saltwater) game fish in the Carangidae family of carangids. It is similar to the Atlantic Moonfish. 

The Lookdown Fish is a silvery fish with a pinkish tinge along its back. It has a scythe-like dorsal (back) fin and a forked tail fin. Its body is rhombus-shaped and laterally compressed (thin). Its head has a low-set mouth, high forehead, and big eyes. 

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Slender Seahorse

The Slender Seahorse (Hippocampus reidi) is a marine (saltwater) fish in the Syngnathidae family. It is a teleostfish. It is also known as the Longsnout Seahorse.

The Slender Seahorse is brightly-coloured. The male is usually orange and the female is usually yellow. Both the male and the female have small brown or white spots unevenly over their body. During courtship, the spots may change colour to pink. Its snout (nose) is thin with a stub end. Each eye moves separately, enabling it to see its predators from all directions.

It has a forward tilt, and a long, coiled tail. The male has a smooth, soft pouch-like area at the base of its abdomen, with a small fin. The female has a pointed stomach and a larger fin at the base of her abdomen. 

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Longhorn Cowfish

The Longhorn Cowfish (Lactoria cornuta) is a small marine (saltwater) fish in the Ostraciidae family of boxfish. It is also known as the Horned Boxfish. 

The Longhorn Cowfish is yellow with white or bluish spots, and two long horns that protrude from the front of its head. When the horns are damaged, they can grow back within a few months. The horns are mostly hollow. It has large dark eyes. It has hexagonal scales that form a solid, triangular box-like shell called a carapace. The male and the female look similar. 

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The Barred Catfish (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum) is a large freshwater fish in the Pimelodidae family of long-whiskered catfish. It is also called the Barred Sorubim. It is related to the Tiger Shovelnose Catfish. 

The Barred Catfish is dark-grey with black loop-like stripes and spots. Its head is depressed with a wide mouth and long whiskers, called barbels. Its eyes and teeth are small. 

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