What is the difference between a chrysalis, a cocoon, and a pupa?

What is the difference between a chrysalis, a cocoon and a pupa?

A chrysalis is the pupal casing of butterflies. A butterfly caterpillar pupates into a chrysalis, and an adult butterfly emerges.

A cocoon is the pupal casing made of moths and other insect larvae. A moth caterpillar pupates into a cocoon, and an adult moth emerges.

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Unwanted Animals

Unwanted plants are called weeds, obnoxious plants, or invasive species. What are unwanted animals called?

Unwanted animals are called vermin, pests, strays, parasites, or invasive species when they are considered to be harmful or destructive to people, other animals, plants, or crops.

For example, fleas are often referred to as parasitic, and rats are considered to be vermin because both carry disease.

Human-introduced animals in a region, which become harmful to the native species and the ecosystem, such as the goats on Galapagos Island, are called invasive species.

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How do ungulates clean their hooves?

Ungulates are hoofed animals such as horses, donkeys, zebras, camels, giraffes, and deer. Hooves can be single (such as a horse’s hoof) or cloven (split into two parts). Deer, cattle, sheep, and goats have cloven hooves.

A hoof is the tip of a toe of an ungulate. It is made of keratin, a thick, hard covering. The sole of the hoof is partially rubbery, but hardens near the outer edges. There is also a hard wall formed by the solid nail rolled around the tip of the toe.

Humans keep animal’s hooves clean and trimmed. In the wild, animals have natural ways of keeping their hooves healthy.

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Animal Ears: do big animals have big ears?

Do big animals have big ears and small animals have small ears? No, animal ears are many sizes and shapes.

Most ears have an outer ear (a pinna, a canal, and an eardrum), a middle ear, and an inner ear.

The pinna is the fleshy part that is visible. It is made of cartilage, not bone, so it is soft. It usually also has an ear lobe. The pinna directs sound through the canal to the eardrum.

The pinna has a muscle that moves the ear. For example, elephants and dogs can move their ears. Animals move their ears in the direction of a sound so that they can hear better.

Not all animals can move their ears because they have weak and non-functioning ear muscles. Animals that cannot move their ears include gorillas and monkeys. Humans cannot move their ears (without touching them).

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Hierarchical Aggression in Baboons

Baboons live in hierarchical groups, called troops, with dominant members, usually males. A troop is 5-250 individuals, with the usual group having about 50 individuals.

The Savannah Baboon, or Yellow Baboon (Papio cynocephalus), from eastern Africa, is an example of a baboon population that lives in a hierarchical social group.

Hierarchical aggression, or dominance hierarchy, in baboons is a form of communication to secure territory, to determine which members eat and drink first, or to determine breeding dominance.

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Salt Licks and Salt Pans

A salt lick, also called a mineral lick, is a place where animals go to lick the the salt and other minerals that have formed a deposit on the ground. It is naturally occurring. A salt lick is white.

Animals benefit from the minerals, such as phosphorus, sodium, calcium, iron, magnesium, sulphur, potassium, and zinc.

The minerals help to develop healthy bones and muscles.

Animals that prefer salt licks include antelopes, elephants, lions, moose, tapirs, cattle, sheep, goats, foxes, squirrels, and porcupines.

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How do frogs croak?

Male frogs croak to attract a female. Females respond with a different and quieter vocalization.

The croaking sound occurs when a frog forces air out of its lungs through its mouth. As the air passes its throat, its larynx (vocal chords) vibrate.

The vocal sacs or pouches distend and blow up like a balloon. The vocal sacs are elastic membranes of skin. Some frogs have the vocal sac under their throat, whereas other frogs have the vocal sac on the corner of their mouth.

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