In September 2020, the New Scientist magazine reported on research to determine why frogs have evolved big eyes.
Some frogs have the biggest eyes of all vertebrates (animals with backbones), in relation to their body size, and zoologists did not know why. Now researchers have found that the size of the eyes of these vertebrates seems to depend upon their environment.
Eyesight requires a lot of energy to function – focusing, adjusting peripheral vision, calculating distance, determing what the object is, and so on. There is a lot of things the eye must do quickly to ‘see’ what is in front and around it. Scientists think this is why animals living in dark environments, such as caves, often evolve to have smaller eyes.
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The Caucasian Parsley Frog (Pelodytes caucasicus) is a freshwater amphibian in the Pelodytidae family of frogs.
The Caucasian Parsley Frog begins its life as an egg. The adult female frog is oviparous, laying eggs. The female lays 40-300 eggs near reeds in a still body of water. The eggs hatch after about 14 days.
The eggs hatch into tadpoles.
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The Pool Frog (Pelophylax lessonae) is a freshwater wetlands amphibian in the Ranidae family of water frogs.
The Pool Frog is green, olive or brown. On its back is a green line that runs from head to tail. There are small warts on its back. Its underbelly is creamy-white. It has a plump body with long hind (back) legs, and no tail. It has large, round, protruding eyes. It has webbed feet.
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The Majorcan Midwife Toad (Alytes muletensis) is a small freshwater amphibian in the Alytidae family of toads. It is a vulnerable species.
The Majorcan Midwife Toad can be a variety of colours, but it is generally brownish to yellowish or greenish, with several irregular dark spots along its body. It has big, bulging dark eyes, suited to living in the dark. It has long legs with webbed feet that enable it to climb over rocks.
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The Kokoe Poison Frog (Phyllobates aurotaenia) is an amphibian in the Dendrobatidae family of poison dart frogs.
The adult Kokoe Poison Frog is black with green, yellow, orange, or brownish stripes on its back. It has a black abdomen with blue or green dots.
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The Phantasmal Poison Frog (Epipedobates tricolor) is an endangered amphibian in the Dendrobatidae family of Poison Dart Frogs.
The Phantasmal Poison Frog begins its life as an egg. The adult female frog is oviparous, laying eggs. The female lays 10-30 eggs, which hatch after about 14 days. The male cares for the eggs.
The eggs hatch into tadpoles, and the male carries them on his back and takes them to a river or stream.
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What is batrachophobia?
Batrachophobia is a fear of all amphibians.
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Young African Clawed Frogs regenerate lost and damaged tails and limbs. Adult African Clawed Frogs also regenerate their lost limbs, but the newly regenerated limb is often not fully functional.
The African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) is an aquatic, freshwater amphibian in the Pipidae family of tongueless frogs. It is also known as the African Clawed Toad, or the African Claw-Toed Frog. It grows to 10-13 centimetres (4-5 inches) in length.
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What is a group of toads called?
A group of toads is called a knab of toads, a knot of toads, and a nest of toads.
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The Diablito Frog (Oophaga sylvatica) is a small venomous amphibian in the Dendrobatidae family of poison dart frogs.
The Diablito Frog varies in colour, from red and yellow to orange. The female has circular, round toe discs or pads that can stick to surfaces, whereas the male has heart-shaped toe discs. The female has an arched back, and the male has a curved back.
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The Spanish Ribbed Newt (Pleurodeles waltl) is a freshwater amphibian in the Salamandridae family of salamanders. It is also called the Iberian Ribbed Newt and the Sharp-Ribbed Newt.
The Spanish Ribbed Newt has a dark-grey body with lighter grey sides. It has small, rust-coloured spots near its ribs. It has a flat spade-shaped head and a long tail. It has tubercles running down each side of its body, with sharp ribs which can puncture through its sides. As it pushes its ribs out, as a defence mechanism, it secretes poison from glands on its body.
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The European Green Toad (Bufotes viridis) is an amphibian in the Bufonidae family of toads.
The European Green Toad has green or dark-brown spots on its back. Its underbelly is white or lightly coloured. It can change colour, depending on heat or light. It has moist skin with mucous glands that secrete slime-like liquid to keep it protected from dehydration, and to help it breathe.
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The Mexican Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is a freshwater amphibian in the Ambystomatidae family of salamanders. Toads, frogs, newts, salamanders, and axolotl are amphibians, living partly in water and partly on land.
Unlike other amphibians, the Mexican Axolotl never leaves the water – it remains aquatic and never goes on land.
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The Yellow-Bellied Toad (Bombina variegata) is a small amphibian in the Bombinatoridae family of fire-bellied toads.
The Yellow-Bellied Toad is grey-brown on the top with spots and warts on its back. Its underbelly and inner sides of its limbs, fingers, and toes, are grey-blue to black-blue with bright yellow to orange spots or patches. Its body is short with a rounded snout (nose). Its eardrums are not visible. It has bulging eyes, with heart-shaped pupils.
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The European Tree Frog (Hyla arborea) is a small amphibian in the Hylidae family of tree frogs.
The European Tree Frog is a light green, slender frog, with a slightly flattened, smooth body. It can also be greyish, olive-green, or tan coloured. It has lightly mottled markings, often with four faint lines or distinctive white spots. It has bulging eyes at the side of its head. Its long hind feet are webbed with cushioned pads. The male has a golden-brown throat and the female has a white throat.
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The Common Tree Frog (Polypedates leucomystax) is a small amphibian in the Rhacophoridae family of shrub frogs.
The Common Tree Frog is a light-green, slender frog, with a slightly flattened, smooth body. It can also be greyish, yellowish, or dark brown. It has lightly mottled markings, often with four faint lines or distinctive white spots. It has bulging eyes at the side of its head. Its hind feet are webbed with cushioned pads.
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What is a group of frogs called?
A group of frogs is called an army of frogs, or a colony of frogs.
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The Hong Kong Warty Newt (Paramesotriton hongkongensis) is an amphibian in the salamander family. It is also known as the Hong Kong Newt.
The Hong Kong Warty Newt has a long dark-brown slimy body with an orange-yellow underbelly. It has small granules or nodules along its body. It has a ridge along its back, from its neck to its thin, flattened tail. Its head is almost triangular in shape. It has bulging eyes with horizontal pupils. It has four short legs with toes that are not webbed.
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The Dyeing Poison Dart Frog (Denrobates tinctorius) is a poisonous amphibian in the poison dart frog family.
The Dyeing Poison Dart Frog varies in colour. Its body is usually black with irregular patterns and stripes in yellow or white along its sides, back, chest, head, and belly. Its legs are mainly blue—either dark-blue or light-blue—with small, black dots. The female has circular, round toe discs or pads (that can stick to surfaces), whereas the male has heart-shaped toe discs. The female has an arched back, and the male has a curved back.
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